Classification of phraseological units in modern English language

Amangeldi Raushan Nurlankyzy
Master’s degree student Kyzylorda State University after Korkyt Ata Kazakhstan

Sadybekova Salima Izbaskankyzy
Professor of philological science Kyzylorda State University after Korkyt AtaKazakhstan

Phraseology is one of the most valuable legacies of any people. In phraseology, the way of life and the way of thinking characteristic of a given society are reflected and transmitted. It is phraseology that represents priceless keys to understanding the culture and mentality of a particular people. Traditions and customs, associativity, features of the imagery of thinking and the history of the people are considered the unofficial founders of the emergence of phraseological units in speech. English language in terms of the presence in its vast system of phraseological units and phraseological turns is perhaps one of the richest. Phraseological units occupy a huge layer in its structure. All events taking place in the UK are reflected in the phraseology: political life, sport, cultural events, everyday life - these are just a partial list of topics reflected in English phraseological units. Many become obsolete, but they are replaced by new, lively, bright and witty. So, we can say with certainty that the phraseological system of the English language will evolve with each passing day, acquire new outlines, enrich itself and enrich the inner world of each individual inhabitant of the Misty Albion.

There are many ways to classify phraseological combinations, depending on which characteristic feature of phraseological units will be taken as a basis. The most common classification of English phraseological units is the thematic. Classification has the main types, which are further divided into more private groups. Idioms in English are associated with various types of human activity, for example: idioms associated with the sea - to be all at sea, to touch bottom; hunting - to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds (to lead a double game); home - to set one's house in order (bring their affairs in order); furniture - to lay on the shelf (discard as useless); kitchen - to have a finger in the pie (to be involved in the case); food - to eat a humble pie (swallow an insult); various crafts and tools - to see through a millstone (to be a very perceptive person)[1]. Often idioms mention dogs, pigs, cats, horses, birds, trees, the moon, clouds, etc. are much less common. L.P. Smith wrote that in English idioms there is a lot of humor, but little beauty and romance. Many idioms express such features of the national character of the English as purposefulness, their ability to be persistent. But the main content of idioms is human relations.

The classification according to the correlation of phraseological units with certain parts of speech is also used (the so-called semantic classification)[2]. The basis of the division was the belonging of the main expression word to any part of speech. Allocate the following sections:
a) verb + noun: to bear malice - harbor anger.
b) the verb + the preposition + the noun: to live on air - to live it is not known what.
c) verb + preposition + pronoun: to stop at nothing - to stop at nothing.
d) verb + adverb: to keep abreast of - to keep in step.
e) to be + adjective: to be sure - to be sure.
f) verb + adjective: to make sure[3].

A.I. Smirnitskydivides English phraseological units into stable expressions that have vivid expression and emotional labeling and are stylistically neutral. A.I.Smirnitsky distinguishes between phraseological units and idioms. To the phraseological units, A.I.Smirnitsky attributes revolutions such as get up, fall in love, etc. Idioms are based on the transfer of meaning, on a metaphor clearly recognized by the speaker [4]. Their characteristic feature is a bright stylistic coloring, for example, take the bull by the horns - act decisively; take the bull by the horns; dead as a doornail - without signs of life, etc.

N.N. Amosova identifies two types of phraseological units - phrasemes and idioms. A phrase is a unit of a permanent context in which the index minimum required for the actualization of a given value of a semantically realized word is the only possible, not variable, that is, constant, for example, beef tea - a strong meat broth; knit one's brows - frown; black frost - frost without snow, etc. The second component is the minimum for the first. N.N.Amosova recognizes that phrasemes constitute the most fluid part of the phraseological foundation.

Idioms, in contrast to phrases, are units of a constant context in which the indicative minimum and the semantically realizable element normally constitute an identity and both are represented by the general lexical composition of the phrase [5]. Idioms are characterized by a holistic meaning, for example, red tape - red tape, bureaucracy; play with fire - play with fire, etc.

A.I.Alekhina distinguishes semantic phraseological series and models on the basis of semantic proximity. In this case, the linguist takes into account the structural features of stable expressions. So A.I. Alekhina distinguishes special verbal structural-semantic models with the verbs to be, to feel, to have, etc., grouping them into certain semantic series, for example, feelings, states, lives, and the like.

I.V. Arnold divides English phraseological units into so-called set-expressions, semi-fixed combinations and free phrases, which generally correspond to the classification of V.V. Vinogradov on the phrasics to be neck and neck, in the twinkling of an eye, get the upper hand and the combination of one's own flesh and blood, respectively. According to V.V. Vinogradov, in the whole set of phraseological units, the class of units that are absolutely indivisible, whose meaning is completely independent of their lexical composition, from the values of their components and as arbitrarily the value of the unmotivated word-sign, is easier and most natural. They are unmotivated and non-productive and are semantic units, homogeneous with a word, devoid of an internal form [6]. If in a close phraseological group there are at least weak indications of semantic separation of components, if the value of the whole is related to the understanding of the inner figurative bar of the phrase, then such groups form phraseological unity. Most of the English language is phraseological unity.

The third class of stable phraseological groups form phraseological groups formed by the realization of non-free connected meanings of words. This phraseological combination [7]. They are analytical in their meaning; they allow synonymous substitution and replacement, identification. Their difference from phraseological unity consists in the fact that in the phraseological combination the meanings of the combined words are to some extent equal in rights, and usually only the meaning of one of the words is perceived as meaning non-free, connected.

Classification of V.V. Vinogradova is inherently semantic, because it is carried out by taking into account the motivation of phraseological units.


1. Abaev V.I. The concept of ideosemantics / / Language and thinking. Issue 11.Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
2. Arnold I.V. Lexicology of modern English. Textbook / - 2 nd ed., Pererab. - M.: FLINT: Science, 2012. - 376 p.
3. Goldenkov M.A., Watch out! HOT DOG! Modern Active English, Moscow, 2004
4. Dubrovin M. Illustrated collection of idioms in five languages. M., 1997
5. Logan P. Smith The Phraseology of the English Language. M., 1959.
6. Kopylenko M.M., Popova Z.D. Essays on general phraseology: Problems, methods, experiences. - Voronezh: Voronezh University Publishing House, 1990, 109 p.
7. Kunin A.V. Phraseology of modern English. - Moscow: International Relations, 1996, 183 p.


Список литературы:

1. Абаев В.И. Понятие идеосемантики / / Язык и мышление. Выпуск 11. Москва-Ленинград, 1948.
2. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. Учебник / - 2-е изд., Перераб. - М .: FLINT: Science, 2012. - 376 с.
3. Голденков М.А. Осторожно! ХОТДОГ! Современный активный английский, Москва, 2004
4. Дубровин М. Иллюстрированный сборник идиом на пяти языках. M., 1997
5. Логан П. Смит. Фразеология английского языка. М., 1959.
6. Копыленко М.М., Попова З.Д. Очерки общей фразеологии: проблемы, методы, опыт. - Воронеж: Издательство Воронежского университета, 1990, 109 с.
7. Кунин А.В. Фразеология современного английского языка. - Москва: Международные отношения, 1996, 183 с.

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