Semiotics of science The concept of code appeared in the scientific and technical world. Its main function is decryption. This is a system of signs and a list of rules according to which this or that information is encrypted or, on the contrary (an example could be a genetic code or a Morse code. Over time, the concept of code has penetrated the sphere of culture and art, and is closely intertwined with the sign, language and symbols of culture. Why is it needed there and what function does it perform? Definition of the cultural code This is a set of symbols and signs enclosed in human activities. It is necessary to understand the cultural image of the world. The cultural code is universal, open to editing, self-sufficient for the reproduction, transmission and conservation of culture. Signs of cultural code For each cultural code, the characters and the two essential characteristics are mandatory. The first is the hierarchy. What does this feature show? It demonstrates a strict hierarchy of subcodes, where one is the principal, subordinate and the rest are secondary, connected and dependent on the principal. The next necessary sign of a cultural code is its economy. The essence of this feature is linked to the theory of the philosopher Umberto Eco. He believed that if a given statement uses too many characters, despite becoming more informative, it is no longer possible to convey it, because this requires too many operations. Therefore, according to Eco, it is much easier to encrypt and transmit (without losing meaning), the expression for which a limited number of characters are used. In ancient times, one of the most significant cultural codes was the naming system. They carried a sacred, divine meaning, and often the subject was endowed with two names: known to those around them and the true, which contained the essence of the subject. Few knew the real name and with the help of this knowledge it was possible to subordinate, control and even destroy. Certain time periods and events are also considered cultural codes. Hence, in the Christian religion the key point is the appearance of the son of God, Jesus Christ. The whole image of the world of the Christian person is built around this event. What is a sign and a symbol in culture The cultural code is inextricably linked to these two terms. So what is a sign and a symbol in culture? A sign is a material or perceived by the object of the sense organs that can replace an object or an action, takes part in the communication processes. It consists of the denotation (of the object, of which it is an analogue or substitute) and of the value (reported by the information sign What is the concept of a symbol? A symbol in culture is a sign with no substantial meaning. Through it one or the other sense of the subject opens up. This concept is ambiguous. There are several definitions of a symbol: A symbol is a phenomenon that marks another phenomenon. A symbol is an image that represents an idea. Identification mark for representatives of a particular group. The main feature of the symbol is that it causes a reaction not only to the object it symbolizes, but also to the entire circle of values associated with this object. Symbols as elements of culture help reveal its meaning and identify it. These are, for example, religious symbols (cross, crescent, star of David, pentagram), military symbols (order or banner), national symbols (flag, coat of arms), even costumes. For example, a hijab, headscarf or veil can be perceived as symbols of Islamic culture. Examples of the most famous characters Symbols appeared in the mind of man in ancient times. These were mainly religious symbols. They expressed the ancient man's view of the structure of the surrounding world. For example, in an attempt to show the device of the universe, in ancient times, people depicted a tree. This symbol, according to them, united all parts of the world (sky, earth, underworld) and also symbolized fertility and the axis of the world. Over time, the symbols have undergone transformations and simplifications: the world tree has turned into a cross and fertility has begun to show a triangle (with the edge facing upwards symbolizing the masculine principle and with the facing down - the female). The triangle is not the only geometric figure used in religious symbolism. For example, the hexagon was a symbol of protection against dark forces, and the square - the four elements (fire, earth, air and water). The five-pointed star, or pentagram, once symbolized protection from all evil, intellectual power, the five wounds of Christ, the divine presence. The inverted pentagram until the middle of the 19th century was interpreted as a symbol of Christ, however, thanks to the interpretation of the occultist Eliphas Levi, it was perceived as a symbol of Satanism As mentioned above, the very concept of code first appeared in the technical, mathematical, cybernetic (for example, telegraphic code or code in the programming language), genetics (DNA code) branches. In these areas, the code is a certain system of signs by which it is possible to read and transmit one or the other information. The code performs a primarily optimization function, which allows you to insert a large amount of information into multiple characters. In cultural studies, the situation is completely different. In the foreground are the meaning and perception of cultural texts. The need for code arises only if the world of signals passes into the world of meanings. A cultural code is a system of signs, symbols and meanings that are implied by them. Often, when studying culture as a system of signs (both from different time periods and existing contemporaries), there are some difficulties in communicating between cultures and interpreting code signs. They are mainly caused by the presence of different stereotypes associated with the perception and understanding of certain symbols, since in different cultures the same sign can mean absolutely opposite phenomena. Relation of language with cultural code and culture How are cultural codes, linguistic and cultural symbols connected? Language is first of all a system of signs: letters, sounds, punctuation marks. With the help of the language is the interpretation of some cultural symbols. The symbol could also be the element of the language itself. It is the language that allows the means of communication to communicate with each other, accumulate knowledge, transmit them, explain and fix symbols, traditions and norms. At the same time, language is also a product of culture, since its appearance is only possible if it exists. The emergence of culture causes the creation of language. It is also one of the conditions for the existence of culture. Semiotics of science Study signs and symbols in culture. This science is relatively young. Although Plato discussed the relationship between name, symbol and sign, the theory of signs was introduced into a separate science in the 17th century. This teaching is called semiotics (from the Greek word "sign"). The philosopher who singled out semiotics as a separate science and gave it that name was John Locke. According to him, the main function of semiotics should have been the study of the nature of signs, which are used to understand things and transfer knowledge. One of the founders of this doctrine, Charles Sanders Pierce, described concepts such as sign and meaning, created a basic classification of sign systems, explained the dynamics that arose during the process of creating a sign, and justifies that this process also includes the interpretation of the created sign Kolovrat has many meanings (depending on the meaning, it is depicted somewhat differently): this is also a symbol of the sun, four elements, fertility. Signs and sign systems in culture In total, it is customary to identify six systems of signs. Natural - includes various natural phenomena that involve and sometimes characterize other phenomena (for example, smoke means fire). Functional: consists of phenomena and objects with a pragmatic purpose. They have turned into signs, as they are directly part of human activity and provide some information about it. An example of an element of such a system of signs can be a mechanism or a technical detail (for example, a tourbillon is a signal that carries information about the functioning of a watch mechanism). Iconic - includes so-called signs-images. Their appearance reflects the appearance of the phenomena they designate. Most of the signs of this language system were artificially created. Conventional - this system includes completely artificially created signs, to which people have assigned one or another value, and not always the sign is similar to the phenomenon meaning (an example of an element of such a system of signs can be a cross red, which means emergency medical assistance). Verbal: These sign systems are all living spoken languages. This system is the greatest of all, since there are several thousand languages in the world. Recording systems Compared to others appeared not so long ago. They originated on the basis of other systems of signs. An example of a writing system could be, for example, a note or a letter Another prominent thinker who contributed to the development of semiotics, the founder of the French semiotic school Ferdinand de Saussure, argued that language is one of the main sign systems and through it it is necessary to learn media culture.Claude Levi Strauss suggested studying religion and art using the same methods of language, as he believed he had a similar basis. Total semiotics includes three subsections: syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. What are their differences? Semantics studies the sign and the system of signs as a means of expressing different meanings. Genetic code, system by which the information contained in the DNA molecule, constituting the chromosomes and encoded in triplets of nucleotides or codons, is able to provide the instructions for the synthesis of specific proteins, linking the respective amino acids in the appropriate sequence . Complex of characters of a cultural, ideological, behavioral nature, which due to their typicality make the cultural or ideological origin of a person unmistakable System of symbolic representation of information: c. alphabetical, numerical, alphanumeric code, consisting of numbers and alphabetic letters, complex of signs and rules relating to them, indispensable for the production and understanding of the message In semiology, a conventionally established system of signs or symbols used to transmit information from an emitter to a receiver: c. telegraphic, maritime; c. graphic, linguistic; write, speak in c. Postal code, number assigned by the postal system to each Italian locality, to allow faster sorting of correspondence, thanks to the mechanographic systems. Bar code, combination of bars printed in different thicknesses and at different intervals with which the packages of consumer products are marked, to be able to identify them immediately by means of an optical reader. Tax code, in the mechanographic coding system of the tax register, combination of letters and numbers with which each taxpayer is identified.
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