A specific feature of the twentieth century was the spread of mass culture, mainly due to the developing means of mass communication. In mass communication, there are usually three components:
1) mass media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, Internet blogs, etc.) - replicate information, regularly influence the audience and are focused on certain groups of people;
2) mass media (advertising, fashion, cinema, mass literature) – do not always have a regular impact on the audience, they are focused on the average consumer;
3) technical means of communication (Internet, telephone) – determine the possibility of direct communication between a person and a person and can serve to transmit personal information.
It can be concluded that the mass media and popular culture are inextricably linked. Culture becomes "mass" when its products are standardized and distributed to the general public.
Mass culture (English "massculture") is a concept that serves to denote the peculiarities of the production of cultural values in a "mass society" focused on mass consumption.
Mass culture encompasses various cultural phenomena of the XX century, which have become widespread due to the scientific and technological revolution and the constant updating of mass communication media. The production, distribution and consumption of mass culture products is of an industrial and commercial nature. The semantic range of mass culture is very wide, starting with primitive kitsch (early comics, melodrama, pop hit, "soap opera") and ending with complex, richly saturated forms (some types of rock music, "intellectual" detective, pop art).
It is also necessary to consider the negative opinions of scientists about the process of the emergence and development of mass culture .According to the famous Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset, society is a minority and a community of the masses. The question arises, who is in the minority here? Who is Mass? According to Ortega, the minority are individuals who have special signs, the mass is a collection of indistinguishable individuals. The mass, that is, average people, contributed to the growth of the number of people in the city and a narrow professional circle, as well as the emergence of "mass culture". This circumstance has damaged the cultural level and modern development. According to the philosopher, the majority is not always "a lot". Qualitatively "distinguished personalities" are referred to as "the majority". Consequently, most people do not have an opinion because they cannot theoretically evaluate the essence. This prevents them from making the right decisions. So, the thought in people's heads should be squeezed like oil into a car. The scientist realizes that social thought cannot be introduced forcibly. "But," he says, "if there is no spiritual domination, if there are no leaders, if people are not manipulated, anarchy will appear in society."
The informing function is associated with providing the mass audience with information about current socio-cultural events.
The educational function is due to the fact that there is an opportunity to broadcast information that introduces the mass audience to socially significant values of the past and present, facilitating orientation in the areas of supply and demand, political orientation.
The regulatory function of mass communication is carried out due to the wide representation of regulatory information. It's not just about constant messages and comments related to legal documents. Generally accepted moral judgments and assessments, the results of public opinion polls are widely covered here, as well as certain cultural topics are formed and endowed with general social significance.
The socio-manipulative function is associated with the desire of the communicator — whoever he may be – to convince the audience of something, mainly young people, to encourage them to commit certain actions. In this case, the practical tasks of increasing the persuasive power of the message are solved, which leads to the accumulation of technology for manipulating public opinion and activity.
Finally, the recreational function should be highlighted. It is about shifting the attention of the younger generation from everyday problems to the world of games, fantasy, and celebration. Different means are used for this. Aesthetic information is presented by fiction publications, sections of newspapers and magazines, literary, musical, theatrical headings on radio, television, on the Internet, electronic recordings, television, film and print products related to fine arts and architecture. The game space consists of all kinds of games, lotteries, quizzes, contests, etc. To create a festive mood, there are — first of all on television – various kinds of shows. All this allows the young audience to detach themselves from everyday life and for a while immerse themselves in the world of colorful images and acute experiences.
The transmission of aesthetic values to millions of audiences is one of the forms of influence of mass communication media on modern culture. Another form of influence is non–reproductive, creative, productive aspects of mass communication. And the third, most significant point that determines the influence of mass communication media on the formation of modern culture is that, due to their technical nature, they not only provided the possibility of mass coverage of numerically dispersed audiences, documentary fixation and demonstration of material, but also contributed to a number of new aesthetic qualities that were comprehended in various areas of cultural activity and they have firmly entered the arsenal of modern culture.
The real, extensive practice of mass communication media dealt a strong blow to the elite culture, contributed to the spread of artistic classics to the masses. Having grown out of literature, painting and other traditional arts, mass communication media have the opposite effect on them, create prerequisites for strengthening the postulate of the nationality of art, as they act as a real guarantor of the mass character of art. With the help of mass communication, it is possible to more deeply understand the theoretical connection of the utilitarian, aesthetic and functional in the impact of art.
The main features of mass culture are the primitivization of the reflection of human relations, social maximalism, the cult of success, entertainment and sentimentality. Mass consciousness, which is formed by mass culture, is diverse in its manifestation. Its main differences are conservatism, inertia, and limitations. It has specific means of expression. Mass culture is based not on realistic images, but on artificially created images and stereotypes.
There is no reason to doubt that mass culture mythologizes human consciousness, mystifies the real processes that occur in nature and in human society. The purpose of mass culture is not an opportunity to fill leisure time and relieve tension in a person, but to stimulate consumer consciousness in the recipient (viewer, listener, reader), which forms a special type of passive, uncritical perception of this culture of a person. Mass culture is the most typical way of existence of culture in the conditions of modern society, where the production of mass culture must be carried out day after day, constantly, around the clock.
It is obvious that the main function of the mass media is to inform society about events in the country and the world, about politics, economics, science, culture, the external environment and the inner life of a person, about all the inexhaustible diversity of reality. Therefore, it is no coincidence that in the modern world there is a ruthless and increasing struggle for access to mass media information resources, the stock of which, undoubtedly, is the dominant component of the entire mass information system of society.
It satisfies the immediate needs of people, reacts to any new event and reflects it. Therefore, samples of mass culture quickly lose relevance, become obsolete, go out of fashion.
Currently, mass culture negatively affects the minds of young people. And at the same time, it can damage national development. And this property of mass culture "cuts the roots" of a person. Let's call it the real dangerous consequences:
– incorrect formation of the cultural mind of the individual;
– destruction of national culture;
– doubt of universal cultural values;
– distance from national spirituality;
– in the first place is the benefit;
– spiritual mind and human spirituality in the background;
– disdainful attitude towards the old and new generation;
– the formation of personalities who put an easy life as a basis.
So, we see that if a person "cuts the roots", he can be freely manipulated, and without realizing it, he will throw himself into the course of "mass culture". In this regard, we can express in the words of the Russian scientist V. G. Fedotova that mass culture forms "individuals without roots." She comes to the conclusion that "with the help of the media, there will be a mass of individuals "without roots" and as a result, society will fall into a state of anomie (loss of traditions and discipline)." If discipline disappears in society, values and morality will disappear. Consequently, if morality disappears, then a mass of spiritually poor people will arise in society. And this is the main goal of "mass culture".
Considering the above opinions, we can judge that over the years the basis of mass culture has begun to consist more of negative properties than positive ones. If earlier there was an adaptation to the national mentality and social rapprochement, then in recent processes the opposite is happening. Therefore, at present it is necessary to create national spiritual centers that are able to increase the spiritual immunity of our youth and fight against the spiritual threat.
Seken Aruzhan, Zholdybaeva Azhar
Әлеуметтік желілерде бөлісіңіз:
Қателік орын алды
- Роберт Вальзер
- Роберт Вальзер
- Роберт Вальзер
- Роберт Вальзер